A historical conceptual approach to the meaning of european civilization
New York: Guilford Press, Marburg: Metropolis Verlag.
Concept of civilization pdf
Google Scholar Romains, Jules. Translated by Edmund Jephcott. Download preview PDF. And the cultures of many Eastern and "primitive" peoples found positive appreciation in European anthropology and in artistic and philosophical movements. Jihad vs. In the middle of the nineteenth century, these core beliefs became the foundation of what is known in the history of anthropological thought as classical evolutionism lucidly explicated by George Stocking. Nationalism and the Future of Civilization. Google Scholar Huntington, Samuel P. Google Scholar Ifversen, Jan. Orient et Occident. Historians have shown that European descriptions of colonized peoples were often fashioned around the assumptions of the civilizing mission; subjects were rhetorically "savaged" sometimes against available evidence to demonstrate their need for European tutelage. In the context of rivalry with Britain, tsarist statesmen also claimed that Russia was a more just and more humane carrier of civilization to Asia because its peasant masses on the frontiers were closer in mentality to Asians and more tolerant of cultural differences than were Europeans settling in overseas colonies. This was even done to peoples who by some definitions were considered civilized—in particular adherents of Islam and Judaism. Stanford, Calif.
While such campaigns seemed natural to those with a nationalistic worldview, Europeans' efforts to conquer, exploit, and dominate peoples on other continents stood in greater need of a justifying slogan. Google Scholar Huntington, Samuel P. Undoing Culture: Globalization, Postmodernism and Identity.
The increasing hybridity of societies in the European overseas colonies and Russian imperial borderlands made the concepts' ambiguities harder to deny, traditional dichotomies harder to defend, and the empires themselves harder to maintain without a change of approach. European civilization secured its dominion of the world while it was increasingly associated with the industrial capitalism and was unsurpassed by any other civilization in terms of influence or affluence.
Google Scholar Latouche, Serge.
Why is the term civilization problematic
Explication de notre temps. History and Politics. London: Hamish Hamilton. But civilizing missions were not only the work of imperial states wielding power through laws and institutions. The establishment of European Union marked the solidarity of the European countries on the premises of a shared value on further enhancement of human rights through social state, welfare and insurance system. Der Syndikalismus der Geistesarbeiter in Frankreich. Wien: Paneuropa-Verlag. Google Scholar Berdayer, Nikolaj. Orient et Occident.
Chapel Hill, N. A new understanding of civilization emerged—more pluralistic and inclusive, and stripped of much of the nineteenth-century ethnocentrism and arrogance. Blaut, James M. Civilization rested on a universalistic, democratic optimism that all human societies were united by the capacity for progress along the same path, either on their own or through the tutelage of others.
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