# Charles law and absolute zero

They are being given energy in the form of heat and this appears as the extra kinetic energy of the gas molecules.

### Experiment to find absolute zero

However, the "absolute zero" on the Kelvin temperature scale was originally defined in terms of the second law of thermodynamics , which Thomson himself described in That is then the theoretical temperature at which there is zero volume and so the molecules must have stopped. The two can be shown to be equivalent by Ludwig Boltzmann's statistical view of entropy If we allow the gas to expand the pressure can be kept constant and we can investigate the connection between the temperature of the gas and its volume. The freezing point of water 0oC becomes K on the Kelvin scale. It'll be green gas. The balls can be freed from this dents by applying heat gently. This straight line is showing this down to at zero degrees Celsius, we've got just a little over three liters that this helium is taking up. The heat warms up the air and it expands. We still have six green particles of gas. At high pressures, the repulsive forces among the molecules are significantly increased which causes the expansion of the volume. Therefore, a regular check is necessary to avoid any unaccepted consequences. The animation below gives and explanation of Charles' law: A sealed cylinder with no leaks contains a fixed mass. Charles's Law states that the volume of a given mass of gas varies directly with the absolute temperature of the gas when pressure is kept constant.

Hot air balloons: We all have seen hot air balloons flying. That is then the theoretical temperature at which there is zero volume and so the molecules must have stopped.

So for example absolute zero oC become 0 K on the Kelvin scale. This French physicist also liked experimenting with gas, and it actually turns out he was the first person to fill up a hot air balloon with hydrogen gas and fly solo. The same thing with hydrogen.

### Charles law and absolute zero

The third column is the constant for this particular data set and is always equal to the volume divided by the Kelvin temperature. Now if we take our equation which is V equals MT, and now we don't need the B because our Y intercept is zero, and if we move some variables around, we'll see that V divided by T is equal to M. Kinetic molecular theory of gases Video transcript Voiceover: We just finished talking about Boyle's law, and the experiments that led to the PV part of the ideal gas equation. All we would do is take 25 and add which would give us Kelvin. Further extrapolation gives the temperature at which the volume of gas would become zero. The interval between this triple point and absolute zero comprises Charles's Law is actually another proof that zero Kelvin is absolute zero because we can't have a negative volume for gas. Oop, I noticed that I put T1 here. If the internal pressure increases the piston will move up to allow the pressure to equalise. Any real gas actually condenses to a liquid or a solid at some temperature higher than absolute zero. If the pressure of the air is kept the same what is the new volume of the sample of air. The animation below gives and explanation of Charles' law: A sealed cylinder with no leaks contains a fixed mass. As you heat a system of gas, the volume will also increase. Our initial volume is 4. Converting the recorded temperatures into the Kelvin scale and plotting the volume V against the absolute temperature T gives a straight line which when extrapolated passes through the origin.

If a graph of volume against temperature is plotted you should get a result similar to graph 1. Pool floats: When inflated pool floats are pushed into pools, they appear as under-inflated. Converting the recorded temperatures into the Kelvin scale and plotting the volume V against the absolute temperature T gives a straight line which when extrapolated passes through the origin.

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