Williams syndrome and brain organization essay
The trajectory of FFA development is typically more prolonged as compared to the development of ventral stream areas allotted to processing other types of visual stimuli Peelen et al. Though it is not explicitly stated, he displays all symptoms.
MRI scans show that skilled violinists have enlarged areas of tissue in the left planum temporale, an auditory crossroads that serves both music and language. To deal with life Williams started to write; he wrote plays, poems, and books A researcher in Australia, Snyder hopes to give people therapeutic access to the raw data of their mind, without the clouding effects of self-reflexive loopsby artificially stimulating the left temporal lobe.
The name Down Syndrome did not start being used until the early s. With having Down Syndrome, Alex has some rough days in the classroom.
Mild williams syndrome
It is this also which has led them to believe that spirits alone are monads and that there are no souls of animals or other entelechies, and it has led them to make the common confusion between a protracted period of unconsciousness and actual death. Individuals with WS are characterized by a compelling psychological phenotype comprised of relative strengths and weaknesses across multiple cognitive domains and with a distinctive pattern of social behavior Martens et al. Hypertension , or high blood pressure , may eventually become a problem. There may be: Special education and vocational training Speech and language, physical, occupational, feeding, and sensory integration therapy Behavioral counseling may follow psychological and psychiatric evaluation Medications are available if there is attention deficit disorder ADD and anxiety Specialist intervention may be necessary for specific problems, such as cardiovascular symptoms. Despite the heterogeneity of these two groups, only a few studies with children have paid sufficient attention to participant recruitment and study design. There are more than , people living in the United States with a Down syndrome diagnosis Genetics. Mervis et al 41 and Laws and Bishop 42 further highlighted the disparity between the relatively good ability to socialize and the difficulty of interacting appropriately with others. Individuals with Down syndrome have varied cognitive delays, meaning that they learn and develop slower than the average person, but they are still able to live normal lives The children with ASD did not exhibit any delayed onset in the development of facial emotion recognition.
Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. There may be abnormalities of occlusion, or the aligning the upper and lower teeth, for example, when chewing or biting.
Williams syndrome adults
In summary, during typical development, the connections within the brain, as well as the organization of the cortex, undergo many functional, and structural changes that likely correspond with the development of complex social-cognitive functions. WS is often associated with a distinctive social phenotype characterized by an increased affinity toward processing faces, reduced sensitivity to fear related social stimuli and a reduced ability to form concrete social relationships. This topic is of interest to me because I work with this population on a daily basis as an occupational therapy assistant. The name Down Syndrome did not start being used until the early s. Although it is not genetic, it has been proven that mothers older than thirty-five are more likely to have a baby with Down syndrome. Results of Porter et al 55 support the explanation whereby behavior is poorly controlled owing to frontal lobe anomalies, while Riby and Hancock aver that individuals with WS display prolonged eye contact because of an inability to direct their gaze appropriately or difficulty understanding social rules. Combined, these studies indicate that white matter matures rapidly during early brain development and that the structural integrity of the IFOF is associated with face and emotion processing. Other amygdala nuclei have been shown to serve different functions. In , Levy and Balchar 38 showed that in semantic and phonological fluency tasks, children with WS and their typical peers produce similar numbers of words. Lastly, as with the WS behavioral phenotype, the neural signature of WS is characterized by both typical and atypical elements. Williams Syndrome is a condition that results in a variety of abilities and disabilities. Down syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is defined as a chromosomal disorder that is associated with intellectual disability Voxels of greater activation in response to happy versus neutral facial expressions in the WS group are designated by cold colors blue. Why are whiteness and coldness in snow, and pain not, when it produces the one and the other idea in us; and can do neither, but by the bulk, figure, number, and motion of its solid parts? Think you the senses were bestowed upon all animals for their preservation and well-being in life?
In conclusion, there remain many intriguing questions regarding how the social brain develops in WS. Barriers may be overt and physical, matters of access; they may be covert or hidden, in terms of social exclusion; they may be endemic, reflected in the way that medical policies are shaped.
In WS, the amygdala nuclei important for processing social-emotional signals may not develop normally and may either be a cause or a consequence of atypical patterns of emotion processing.
Down syndrome1 is a condition that occurs in the chromosomes. This method emphasizes data that supposedly reflect both subjective and objective indicators of quality of life.
A blood test may be carried out to check for high levels of calcium.
based on 24 review